There is little empirical data on the performance of modern rootstocks
in the Hill Country of Texas. Rootstocks are used to impart a particular
level of vigor, to overcome specific soil limitations such as phylloxera,
nematodes, high soil lime content, and Cotton Root Rot. On acid or mildly
alkaline soils SO4 & 5C are stocks commonly used in the Hill Country.
These stocks are tolerant to phylloxera (an insect that feeds on both root
The following is a list of rootstocks currently in use or that
hold promise for vineyards in the Hill Country.
SO4 (V. berlandieri x V. riparia) Vigorous
rootstock popular among growers on neutral or mildly alkaline
sites. Good nematode and phylloxera tolerance. Most cultivars are widely
available on this stock.
Kober 5 BB- (V. berlandieri x V. riparia) A vigorous
rootstock suited to areas where scion vigor is a problem. Moderate nematode
resistance. Very resistant to phylloxera and perhaps has some resistance
to Cotton Root Rot.
Teleki 5C- (V. berlandieri x V. riparia) A stock,
somewhat more vigorous than SO4, being planted on Hill Country sites with
acidic or mildly alkaline soils. High resistance to phylloxera and nematodes.
There has been widespread confusion in the nursery industry between 5C
110 Richter- (V. berlandieri x V. rupestris) Vigorous
stock that tends to delay maturity. This stock is drought tolerant and
tolerant of up to 17% lime in the soils. Not extensively planted, but holds
promise for moderately high pH sites.
1103 Paulsen- (V. berlandieri x V. rupestris) A
vigorous stock (similar to 110 R) adaptable to clay-lime soils. 1103 P
is also reported to be somewhat salt tolerant. Not extensively planted
41 B- V. berlandieri x V. vinifera) A moderately
vigorous stock which imparts somewhat early fruit maturity. Chief characteristic
is its exceptional resistance to high-lime soils.
Dogridge- An extremely vigorous stock with good resistance
to nematodes, but only moderate tolerance to phylloxera and high-lime soils.
Difficult to propagate so may have limited availability in nurseries. High
level of suckering is a commercial drawback.
Champanel- (V. champini) A native cultivar sometimes
used as a rootstock where high pressure from Cotton Root Rot is encountered.
Not tolerant to nematodes. While graft transmission has not been proven,
its tolerance to Pierce’s disease may make it a potential carrier in combination
with a susceptible scion.